A quick outline of the topics introduced in this tutorial :The analog and digital devices work side by side but they cannot work together until there is some means for them to understand their languages. So, for a proper communication between these devices, converters are required that can convert analog into digital and vice versa. These converters are AD and DA converters. |

Introduction to the Number System : Part 1 Introducing number systems. Representation of numbers in Decimal, Binary,Octal and Hexadecimal forms. Conversion from one form to the other. | Number System : Part 2 Binary addition, subtraction and multiplication. Booth's multiplication algorithm. Unsigned and signed numbers. | Introduction to Boolean Algebra : Part 1 Binary logic: True and false. Logical operators like OR, NOT, AND. Constructing truth tables. Basic postulates of Boolean Algebra. Logical addition, multiplication and complement rules. Principles of duality. Basic theorems of boolean algebra: idempotence, involution, complementary, commutative, associative, distributive and absorption laws. | Boolean Algebra : Part 2De-morgan's laws. Logic gates. 2 input and 3 input gates. XOR, XNOR gates. Universality of NAND and NOR gates. Realization of Boolean expressions using NAND and NOR. Replacing gates in a boolean circuit with NAND and NOR. |

Understanding Karnaugh Maps : Part 1 Introducing Karnaugh Maps. Min-terms and Max-terms. Canonical expressions. Sum of products and product of sums forms. Shorthand notations. Expanding expressions in SOP and POS Forms ( Sum of products and Product of sums ). Minimizing boolean expressions via Algebraic methods or map based reduction techniques. Pair, quad and octet in the context of Karnaugh Maps. | Karnaugh Maps : Part 2Map rolling. Overlapping and redundant groups. Examples of reducing expressions via K-Map techniques. | Introduction to Combinational Circuits : Part 1Combinational circuits: for which logic is entirely dependent of inputs and nothing else. Introduction to Multiplexers, De-multiplexers, encoders and decoders.Memories: RAM and ROM. Different kinds of ROM - Masked ROM, programmable ROM. | Combinational Circuits : Part 2 Static and Dynamic RAM, Memory organization. |

Introduction to Sequential Circuits : Part 1 Introduction to Sequential circuits. Different kinds of Flip Flops. RS, D, T, JK. Structure of flip flops. Switching example. Counters and Timers. Ripple and Synchronous Counters. | Sequential Circuits : Part 2ADC or DAC Converters and conversion processes. Flash Converters, ramp generators. Successive approximation and quantization errors. |